Concrete Repair Terminology is prepared by the International Concrete Repair Institute. The cross-referenced terms provide definitions for commonly used words in concrete repair, restoration and protection.
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Revised April 2019
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a wall designed and built to carry superimposed vertical or in-plane and shear loads, or both.
the exterior layer of any wall system.
a deviation of a surface from its original shape, usually caused by either temperature or moisture differentials, or both, within the material. (See also curling.)
water held on surfaces of a material by electrochemical forces and having physical properties substantially different from those of absorbed water or chemically combined water at the same temperature and pressure. (See also, adsorption.)
water in set cement paste present in capillaries or held by surface forces; measured as that removable by drying under specified conditions. (See also water, non-evaporable.)
the water that is chemically combined during cement hydration; not removable by specified drying. (See alsowater, evaporable.)
the water in freshly mixed sand-cement grout, mortar, or concrete, exclusive of any previously absorbed by the aggregate (for example, water considered in the computation of the net water-cement ratio).
the amount of water a material absorbs under specified test conditions. (See also moisture, absorbed.)
surface property that causes the formation of discrete water droplets on a surface.
the ratio of the amount of water, exclusive only of that absorbed by the aggregates, to the amount of cement in a concrete, mortar, grout, or cement paste mixture; preferably stated as a decimal by mass and abbreviated w/c. (See also water-cementitious material ratio.)
water-cementitious material ratio
the ratio of the amount of water, exclusive only of that absorbed by the aggregate, to the amount of cementitious material in a concrete or mortar mixture. (See also water-cement ratio.)
a process for cleaning surfaces with a stream of pressurized water; often used to clean concrete surfaces for aesthetic purposes or to remove bond inhibiting materials from a concrete substrate prior to repair.
water cleaning, low-pressure
cleaning process typically performed with pressures less than 5,000 psi (34 MPa).
water cleaning, high-pressure
cleaning process typically performed with pressures between 5,000 and 10,000 psi (34 and 70 MPa).
a generic term used to describe equipment that uses a pressurized stream of water exiting a small orifice at extreme velocity for cleaning (without abrasive) or cutting (with abrasive); widely used without abrasive for concrete removal and surface preparation prior to repair.
(See also hydrodemolition)
waterjet with a typical pressure of 10,000 to 25,000 psi (70-170 MPa).
waterjet, ultra high-pressure
waterjet with a typical pressure of more than 25,000 psi (170 MPa).
impervious to water in either liquid or vapor state. (See also dampproofing.) (Since nothing can be completely “impervious” to water under infinite pressure over infinite time, this term should not be used.)
a device in the nozzle body of dry-mix shotcrete equipment through which water is added to the materials.
1) the fraction of the total chloride-ion content within hardened concrete that is generally considered to be available to act in the electrochemical process of reinforcing steel corrosion; total chlorides are usually assumed to be those that are acid soluble. 2) those chlorides identified by testing in accordance with ASTM C1218.
a thin sheet of metal, rubber, plastic, or other material installed across a joint to impede seepage.
impermeable to water except when under hydrostatic pressure sufficient to produce structural discontinuity by rupture.
the time rate of water vapor transmission through unit area of flat material of unit thickness induced by vapor pressure difference between two specific surfaces, under specified temperature and humidity conditions.
the time rate of water vapor transmission through unit area of flat material or construction induced by vapor pressure difference between two specific surfaces, under specified temperature and humidity conditions.
the rate of water vapor flow through a unit area of a material, normal to specific parallel surfaces, under specific conditions of temperature and humidity at each surface. (See also permeability, permeance (water vapor), and perm.)
water vapor transmission rate
the steady water vapor flow in unit time through unit area of a body, normal to specific parallel surfaces, under specific conditions of temperature and humidity at each surface.
a topping or surface treatment to increase the resistance of a concrete pavement or slab to abrasion.
degradation in color, texture, strength, chemical composition or other properties of a material caused by exposure to the weather.
a process for roughening, cleaning, abrading, or finishing a surface using compressed air and injecting a slurry consisting of water and a suspended abrasive at the nozzle. (See also abrasive blasting.)
wettest stable consistency
the condition of maximum water content at which cement grout and mortar will adhere to a vertical surface without sloughing.
a substance used to reduce the surface tension of liquids so that solid surfaces can be wetted and liquids can penetrate the capillaries.
a device developed to estimate the quality and compressive strength of insitu concrete by measuring the depth of penetration of probes driven into the concrete surface by means of a powder actuated driver.
that property of freshly-mixed materials which determines the ease and homogeneity with which it can be mixed, placed, consolidated, and finished.
the test or specimen electrode in an electrochemical cell.
the period of time during which an adhesive, after mixing with catalyst, solvent, or other compounding ingredients, remains sufficiently workable to permit application and spreading.
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