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Concrete Repair Terminology (T)
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Concrete Repair Terminology is prepared by the International Concrete Repair Institute. The cross-referenced terms provide definitions for commonly used words in concrete repair, restoration and protection.

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Revised April 2019

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the sticky condition of a material such as an adhesive prior to hardening.

Tafel relation

logarithmic relation between the open circuit potential and current density in an electrochemical cell.

Tafel slope

the slope of the straight line portion of a polarization curve, usually occurring at more than 50 mV from the open-circuit potential, when presented in a semi-logarithmic plot in terms of volts per logarithmic cycle of current density (commonly referred to as volts per decade).


1) an implement used to consolidate concrete or mortar in molds, forms, or repair cavities; 2) a hand-operated device for consolidating floor topping or other unformed repair materials by impact from the dropped device in preparation for strikeoff and finishing; contact surface often consists of a screen or a grid of bars to force coarse aggregates below the surface to prevent interference with finishing.


the operation of consolidating freshly placed concrete or other repair materials by repeated blows or penetrations with a tamper. (See also consolidation and rodding.)


to add water to a cementitious mixture as necessary to initially bring the mixture to the desired workability. (See also retemper.)

temperature cracking

temperature rise

the increase of temperature caused by either absorption of heat or internal generation of heat, e.g., hydration of cement in concrete.

temporary bracing

temporary supplemental members added to an existing structure to prevent local or global instability during evaluation and repair construction..


a steel element such as wire, cable, bar, rod, or strand, or a bundle of such elements, typically used in tension to impart compressive stress to concrete and as external strengthening to increase structural capacity.

tendon, bonded

a prestressing tendon that is bonded to the concrete through grouting or other approved means and; therefore, not free to move relative to the concrete.

tendon, unbonded

a tendon that is permanently free to move relative to the concrete being stressed.

tendon profile

the path or trajectory of the prestressing tendon.

tensile bond strength

tensile pull-off test

tensile strength


a trial, examination, observation, or evaluation used as a means of measuring either a physical or a chemical characteristic of a material, or a physical characteristic of either a structural element or a structure.

test, compression

test made on a test specimen of mortar or concrete to determine the compressive strength; in the United States, unless otherwise specified, compression tests of mortars are made on 2 in. (50 mm) cubes and compression tests of concrete are made on cylinders 6 in. (152 mm) in diameter and 12 in. (305 mm) high.

test, tensile pull-off

a test to determine the unit stress, applied in direct tension, required to separate a hardened repair material from the existing concrete substrate. The test may also be used to determine the maximum unit stress that the existing concrete substrate is capable of resisting under axial tensile loading and the near-surface tensile strength of a prepared surface.

test method

a detailed procedure utilized to evaluate the property characteristics and/or performance capabilities of a material.

thermal compatibility

thermal conductivity

thermal contraction

contraction caused by decrease in temperature.

thermal cutting

procedure for removal of concrete with thermal or powder lances that employ intense heat generated by the reaction between oxygen and powdered metals to melt a slot into concrete. (See also thermal lance.)

thermal expansion

expansion caused by increase in temperature.

thermal lance

equipment for cutting concrete with intense heat generated by the reaction between oxygen and powdered metals. (See also thermal cutting.)

thermal shock

the subjection of a material or body to a rapid change in temperature that may be expected to have a potentially deleterious effect.


two conductors of different metals joined together at both ends, producing a loop in which an electric current will flow when there is a difference in temperature between the two junctions.

thermography, infrared


a material that can be repeatedly softened by heating and hardened by cooling.


capable of assuming a rigid, fixed shape when cured by heat or other means.


the property of a material that enables it to acquire a lower viscosity when mechanically agitated and rapidly stiffen upon subsequent rest; a material having this property is termed thixotropic and can be placed vertically or horizontally without sagging during the curing process.

throwing power

the relationship between the current density at a point on a surface and its distance from the counter electrode; the greater the ratio of the surface resistivity shown by the electrode reaction to the volume resistivity of the electrolyte, the better is the throwing power of the process.

time-dependent deformation

tongue and groove

a joint in which a protruding rib on the edge of one side fits into a groove in the edge of the other side. (See also keyway.)


the permissible deviation from a specified dimension, quantity, location or alignment.


the act of compacting and contouring a material in a joint.


1) a layer of concrete, mortar, or other material placed to form a floor or surface on a concrete base; 2) a structural, cast-in-place surface for precast floor and roof systems; and 3) the mixture of marble chips and matrix that, when properly processed, produces a terrazzo surface.

topping, dry

see dry-shake (preferred term).

topping, monolithic

on flatwork: a higher quality, more serviceable topping course placed promptly after the base course has lost all slump and bleed water.


the property of matter that resists fracture by impact or shock.



transverse crack


the application of a chemical or process with the aim of affecting a desired change.


a pipe or tube through which concrete is deposited under water, having at its upper end a hopper for filling and a bail for moving the assemblage.

tremie concrete

tremie seal

the depth to which the discharge end of the tremie pipe is kept embedded in the fresh concrete that is being placed; a layer of tremie concrete placed in a cofferdam for the purpose of preventing the intrusion of water when the cofferdam is dewatered.


a flat, broad-blade steel hand tool used to place, spread, shape, finish, or otherwise apply mortar or other materials; also used in the final stages of finishing operations to impart a relatively smooth surface to concrete and other materials.

trowel, fresno

a thin steel trowel that is rectangular (with or without rounded corners), usually 4 to 10 in. (100 to 250 mm) wide and 20 to 36 in. (0.5 to 0.9 m) long, with a 4 to 16 ft. (1.2 to 5 m) long handle, and used to smooth surfaces of non-bleeding concrete and shotcrete. (320.5R-14, ACI Concrete Terminology 2013)


the placement of a repair where the material is transported and pressed into the prepared substrate using a trowel or similar tool.

trowel finish


smoothing and compacting the unformed surface of materials by strokes of a trowel.

true solution

one in which the components are 100% dissolved in the base solvent.

tube a manchette

a grout pipe perforated with rings of small holes at intervals of about 12 in. (305 mm). Each ring of perforations is enclosed by a rubber sleeve that fits tightly around the pipe to act as a one-way valve when used with an inner pipe containing two packer elements that isolate a stage for injection of grout.

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