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Concrete Repair Terminology (Q-R)
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Concrete Repair Terminology is prepared by the International Concrete Repair Institute. The cross-referenced terms provide definitions for commonly used words in concrete repair, restoration and protection.

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Revised April 2019

A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |   E   |   F   |   G   |   H   |   I   |   J-L   |   M   |   N-O   |   P   |   Q-R   |   S   |   T   |   U-V   |   W   |   X-Y-Z

- Q -

quality assurance

steps taken by or for the owner to assure the quality of the work.

quality control

steps taken by the contractor to control quality of the work.

- R -


a nondestructive testing method for locating metal embedments, voids beneath pavements, or determining thickness of members; interface between materials with different dielectric properties results in reflection of a portion of incident electromagnetic pulse.


a nondestructive testing method for locating reinforcing and prestressing steel, conduits, pipes, voids, and honeycomb; the intensity of high-energy electromagnetic radiation which passes through a member is recorded on photographic film.


using a heavy blunt tool to tamp concrete. (See also dry pack, and tamping.)

rapid chloride test

a method for on-site determinations of acid-soluble and water-soluble chloride ion contents of concrete powder samples with proprietary chloride extraction liquids and calibrated instrument probes.


a material that reacts chemically with the base component of a grout system.

reactive aggregate

realkalization (realkalisation)

an electrochemical treatment to restore alkalinity to carbonated concrete carried out by temporarily applying an electric field between the reinforcement in the concrete and an externally mounted anode mesh using an alkaline electrolyte that is transported into the concrete.



aggregate and cement, or wet shotcrete, that bounces away from the surface against which shotcrete is being projected.

rebound hammer

a nondestructive testing apparatus that provides a rapid indication of the near- surface mechanical properties of hardened cementitious materials based on the distance of rebound of a spring driven plunger.


the act or process of depicting, by means of new construction, the form, features, and detailing of a non-surviving building, structure, or object for the purpose of replicating its appearance at a specific period of time and in its historic location.

reference electrode

a nonpolarizable electrode with a known and highly reproducible potential.

reflective cracking


point in a grouting process when the resistance of the formation is equal to the pressure developed by the injection pump so that grout flow ceases.


1) the process of repairing or modifying a structure to a desired useful condition; 2) the act or process of making possible a compatible use for a property through repair, alterations, and additions while preserving those portions or features which convey its historical, cultural, or architectural values. (See also repair and restoration.)


1) bars, wires, strands, fibers, or other slender members which are embedded in concrete primarily to improve tensile strength; 2) fibers and fillers that improve the physical strength of coating systems.

reinforcement continuity

reinforcing steel

relative humidity

the ratio of the quantity of water vapor in the air to the maximum amount the air would hold at the same temperature, expressed as a percentage.

release agent

material used to prevent bonding of concrete to a surface. (See also bond breaker.)


(verb) to apply a coat of mortar by a trowel or float; (noun)— a mortar coat applied by rendering.


repair and remodeling of an old building to restore it to a serviceable condition.


to replace or correct deteriorated, damaged, or faulty materials, components, or elements of a structure. (See also rehabilitation and restoration.)

repair, full-depth

removal and replacement of damaged or deteriorated concrete that constitutes the full depth of a member or element.

repair, nonstructural

protective repair that is not intended to affect the structural capacity of a member.

repair, partial-depth

removal and replacement of damaged or deteriorated near-surface concrete that constitutes only a portion of the depth of a member or element.

repair, structural

replace, correct, or strengthen deteriorated, damaged, or understrength load-resisting members and nonstructural members which, if failed, would result in an unsafe condition.

repair composite

combination of individual components of a repair; typically includes the concrete substrate, repair material or overlay, and the bond interface between repair/overlay and substrate.

repair material

a material applied to hardened concrete intended to restore the concrete to its desired function.

repair mockup

repair process

the complete process of evaluating an existing structure, the design and implementation of stabilization measures and repairs; the repair process is complete when the use of repaired structure is transferred to the Owner and/or the repair contract terms are completed.

repair systems

the materials and techniques used for repair.


a natural or synthetic, solid or semisolid, organic material of indefinite and often high molecular weight having a tendency to flow under stress; usually has a softening or melting range, and usually fractures conchoidally.

resin, acrylic

one of a group of thermoplastic resins formed by polymerization of the esters or amides in acrylic acid used to make polymer-cement and polymer mortars and concretes; used in concrete maintenance and repair as a surface sealer or bonding agent.

resin, epoxy

a class of organic chemical bonding systems used in the preparation of special coatings for concrete, as adhesives for injection of cracked concrete, or as binders in epoxy-resin mortars, concretes, and fiber-reinforced polymer composites.

resin, furan

a thermosetting catalyzed condensation reaction product from furfuryl alcohol, furfural or combination thereof.

resin, methacrylate

one of a group of resins formed by polymerizing the esters or amides of acrylic acids.

resin, polyester

one of a large group of synthetic resins, mainly produced by reaction of dibasic acids with dihydroxy alcohols; commonly prepared for application by mixing with a vinyl-group monomer and free-radical catalysts at ambient temperatures and used as binders for resin mortars and concretes, fiber laminates (mainly glass), adhesives, and the like; commonly referred to as unsaturated polyester.

resin, silicone

a resin, characterized by water-repellent properties, in which the main polymer chain consists of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms, with carbon-containing side groups; silicones may be used in caulking or coating compounds or as admixtures for concrete.

resin, urea

a synthetic resin made from urea and an aldehyde.

resin, urethane

a class of resins obtained by the reaction of diisocyanates with organic compounds containing two or more active hydrogen atoms to form polymers having free isocyanate groups. Under the influence of heat or catalysts, the latter react with each other, with water, glycols, diamines, etc., to form a thermosetting material.

resin, vinyl ester

a thermosetting reaction product of epoxy resin with a polymerizable unsaturated acid, usually methacrylic acid, that is then diluted with a reactive monomer, usually styrene.

resin concrete


the process of re-establishing the materials, form, and appearance of a structure to those of a particular era of the structure. (See also rehabilitation and repair.)

restoration (historical)

the act or process of accurately depicting the form, features, and character of a property as it appeared at a particular period of time by means of the removal of features from other periods in its history and reconstruction of missing features from the restoration period.

restrained shrinkage test

test method (such as ASTM C1581) that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between load, strength gain, shrinkage, modulus of elasticity, creep, and other factors that govern the cracking potential of a restrained repair material.


internal or external restriction of free movement of fresh or hardened concrete, mortar, or grout.



to add water and remix a cementitious mixture to restore workability to a condition in which the mixture is placeable or usable. (See also temper.)


modification of an existing member or structure to increase its resistance.


the science dealing with flow of materials, including studies of the handling and placing of freshly mixed concrete and mortar, the behavior of slurries and pastes, and the like deformation of hardened concrete.

rock pocket

a porous, mortar-deficient portion of hardened concrete consisting primarily of coarse aggregate and open voids; caused by leakage of mortar from the form, separation (segregation) during placement, or insufficient consolidation. (See also honeycomb.)


sharp-edged cutting screed used to trim shotcrete to forms or ground wires. (See also screed.)


consolidating concrete with a tamping rod. (See also tamping.)

roller-compacted concrete

roller compaction

use of a vibratory, or other type roller, to compact concrete.


an uneven, wavy, textured surface at the outer edge of a spray pattern resulting from the application of shotcrete at angles less than 90 deg to the receiving surface; the use of heavy metal or stone rollers on terrazzo topping to extract excess matrix.

rotary drilling

a process for drilling a hole with a rotating drill bit under constant pressure. (See also percussion drilling.)


a measure of the texture of a surface; quantified by the vertical deviations of a prepared concrete surface from an ideal plane. If these deviations are large, the surface is rough; if they are small the surface is smooth.


to deepen and widen a crack to prepare it for patching or sealing.


a collection of bundles of continuous glass fiber filaments, either as untwisted strands or as twisted yarns.


sagging and curtaining of a coating usually caused by improper mixing or poor application techniques.


a corrosion product consisting primarily of hydrated iron oxide (term properly applied only to ferrous alloys).


a strip of wood or other material attached to a form surface to produce a groove in the repair.


the formation of depressions in a concrete surface caused by the excessive loading and abrasive wearing action of traffic.

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