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Concrete Repair Terminology (M)
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Concrete Repair Terminology is prepared by the International Concrete Repair Institute. The cross-referenced terms provide definitions for commonly used words in concrete repair, restoration and protection.

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Revised April 2019

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macrocell corrosion

process whereby one layer of metallic reinforcement corrodes preferentially to another layer; corrosion that occurs where a distinction between corroding areas of the rebar (anode) and non-corroding areas (cathode) is found. (See also microcell corrosion.)


a fiber with an equivalent diameter equal to or greater than 0.012 in. (0.3 mm) for use in concrete.

magnesium phosphate cement


taking periodic actions that will delay damage or deterioration or both. (See also preservation and protection.)


map cracking


construction composed of shaped or molded units, usually small enough to be handled by one person and composed of stone, ceramic brick or tile, concrete, glass, adobe, or the like.

masonry, bonded hollow-wall

a cavity wall, built of masonry units, in which the inner and outer walls are tied together by bonders (masonry units placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall that act as ties).

masonry, grouted

unit masonry composed of either hollow units wherein the cells are filled with grout or multiple wythes where spaces between the wythes are filled with grout.

masonry, hollow-unit

masonry consisting either entirely or partially of hollow masonry units laid in mortar.

masonry, reinforced

unit masonry in which reinforcement is embedded in such a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces.

masonry, solid-unit

masonry consisting wholly of solid masonry units laid in mortar.

masonry structure

a structure of individual masonry units laid in and bonded together with mortar.


a thick adhesive material used to hold waterproofing membranes in place or as a sealant.


1) an assembly of steel reinforcement composed of two or more layers of bars placed at angles to each other and secured together either by welding or tying; or 2) a thin layer of randomly oriented chopped filaments, short fibers (with or without a carrier fabric), or long random filaments loosely held together with a binder and used as reinforcing for a fiber-reinforced polymer composite material.


to provide, by selection, formulation, adjustment, or other means, a surface repair that is indistinguishable from or within specified tolerances of the surrounding area.

material hose

material properties

a set of typically quantifiable characteristics of a material, such as mechanical, physical, or electrochemical, that can be used to define expected performance or behavior of the material or to compare one material with another.

material specifications

an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material.


1) in the case of mortar, the cement paste in which the fine aggregate particles are embedded; in the case of concrete, the mortar in which coarse aggregate particles are embedded; 2) in the case of fiber-reinforced composites, the resin or binders in which the fiber reinforcements are embedded.

mechanical anchors

mechanical bond

in general concrete construction, the physical interlock between cement paste and aggregate, or between concrete and reinforcement (specifically, the sliding resistance of an embedded bar and not the adhesive resistance).

mechanical properties

those properties of a material that are associated with elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied, or which involve the relationship between stress and strain.

mechanical shearing

a method for removal of concrete and steel with hydraulically powered jaws; especially applicable for demolition work. (See also jaw crusher.)


protective surface treatment with a thickness greater than 30 mils (0.75 mm) and less than 250 mils (6 mm) applied to the surface of concrete.

membrane, liquid

a liquid material applied to a surface to form a continuous waterproof film after it cures.

membrane, sheet

any functionally continuous flexible structure of felt, fabric, or mat, or combinations thereof, and plying cement.

membrane curing

metering pump

a device incorporating one or more pumps for pressurizing and delivering fluids such as grout; for multi-component materials, the flow rates of the pumps are synchronized to dispense the components at the desired ratio.


methods of measurement

the definition of how repair areas will be quantified for billing purposes during performance of work, e.g., per linear foot, per square foot, per cubic foot, etc.methods of measurement—the definition of how repair areas will be quantified for billing purposes during performance of work, e.g., per linear foot, per square foot, per cubic foot, etc.

methyl methacrylate

a colorless, volatile liquid derived from acetone cyanohydrin, methanol, and dilute sulfuric acid.

microcell corrosion

localized corrosion in which anodic and cathodic reaction sites are in close proximity to one another or immediately adjacent, leading to pitting over the surface. (See also macrocell corrosion.)


crack too small to be seen with the unaided eye.



one thousandth of an inch, 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm); typically used as the unit of measurement for thickness of thin coatings.


a superficial growth produced by fungi in the presence of moisture that causes surface discoloration and decomposition.


method commonly used for removal of a specified depth of concrete from large areas of horizontal or vertical surfaces. (See also scarifier.)

mineral filler

a finely divided mineral product at least 65% of which passes the U. S. Standard 75-μm (No. 200) sieve.

minimum-film-forming temperature

the lowest temperature at which latex will coalesce to form a continuous film.


a process in which a very fine spray of water is applied to, a) a fresh concrete surface to minimize the potential for plastic shrinkage cracking, or b) a hardened concrete surface for moist curing.


to combine or blend two or more materials into a single mixture; a compound of two or more materials.

mixed potential

the potential of a specimen (or specimens in a galvanic couple) when two or more electrochemical reactions are occurring simultaneously.


a machine used for blending the constituents of concrete, grout, mortar, cement paste, or other mixtures.

mixing speed

rotation rate of a mixer drum or of the paddles in an open-top, pan, or trough mixer, when mixing a batch.

mixing time

the time from completion of mixer charging until the beginning of discharge.


the assembled, blended, commingled ingredients of mortar, concrete, or the like; or the proportions for their assembly.

mockup, repair

trial repair system application constructed in a representative sample area to demonstrate surface preparation and material application techniques, testing performance, appearance, or any combination thereof for evaluation and acceptance prior to performance of the work.

modulus of elasticity

the ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stress below the proportional limit of the material; also referred to as elastic modulus or Young's modulus.

modulus of rupture

a measure of the ultimate load-carrying capacity of a beam tested in flexure. (See also strength, flexural.)



moisture, absorbed

moisture that has entered the permeable voids of a solid and has physical properties not substantially different from ordinary water at the same temperature and pressure. (See also absorption.)

moisture, free

moisture having essentially the properties of pure water in bulk; moisture not absorbed by aggregate. (See also moisture, surface.)

moisture, surface

free water retained on surfaces of aggregate particles and considered to be part of the mixing water in concrete, as distinguished from absorbed moisture.

moisture content

the ratio, expressed as a age, of the mass of absorbed or adsorbed water in a given material to the total mass.

moisture movement

the movement of moisture through a porous medium. (See also shrinkage and swelling.)

moisture vapor transmission rate


the simplest combination of atoms that will form a specific chemical compound; the smallest particle of a substance which will still retain the essential composition and properties of that substance, and which can be broken down only into atoms and simpler substances.


recurring inspections and data collection, either manual or automatic, to determine the change in condition of a structure with time.


a system wherein the individual components react together as a uniform, continuous mass.


an organic liquid, of relatively low molecular weight, that creates a solid polymer by reacting with itself or other compounds of low molecular weight or both.


a mixture of cement paste and fine aggregate.

mortar mixer

a mechanical device designed to mix and contain the components of concrete repair materials. (320.5R-14)

mortar, polymer

a composite material of fine aggregates bound together by an organic polymer.


adjacent spots of different tones and colors in a coating film that create a blotchy effect.


a coating defect characterized by a broken network of cracks in the surface film.


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