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Concrete Repair Terminology (I)
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Concrete Repair Terminology is prepared by the International Concrete Repair Institute. The cross-referenced terms provide definitions for commonly used words in concrete repair, restoration and protection.

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Revised April 2019

A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |   E   |   F   |   G   |   H   |   I   |   J-L   |   M   |   N-O   |   P   |   Q-R   |   S   |   T   |   U-V   |   W   |   X-Y-Z

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instantaneous contact of a moving body with another body, either moving or at rest.

impact breakers

impact echo

a nondestructive testing method, based on stress wave propagation, that uses impact to generate a low frequency wave; the presence and position of a reflector, such as a crack, delamination, or void, are indicated by the echo amplitude and time.

impact resistance

resistance to fracture under the sudden application of an external force.

impending slough

a consistency of a shotcrete mixture containing the maximum amount of water such that the product will not flow or sag after placement.


a process in which the void structure of a hardened material is filled by saturation with a liquid.

impulse radar

a nondestructive testing procedure that uses low-power impulse radar elements and advanced signal processing techniques to detect and image the internal structure of reinforced concrete.

incipient anode effect


a condition in which two or more materials are unable to combine or remain together without undesirable aftereffects. (See also compatibility.)


a crust or coating, generally hard, formed on the surface of hardened concrete.

independent testing agency

a testing laboratory approved by the Licensed Design Professional to perform the referenced testing procedures.

induction time

the time between mixing of two-component materials and the time they can be used.


devoid of active properties; incapable of or resisting combination.


the uncontrolled ingress of air or liquid through cracks and pores in concrete.

infrared thermography

a nondestructive testing method for locating delaminations in pavements and bridge decks and detecting moist insulation in buildings; the presence of flaws within concrete affects the heat conduction properties of the concrete and the presence of defects is indicated by differences in surface temperatures when the test object is exposed to correct ambient conditions.


a substance that can slow chemical reactions; a chemical substance or combination of substances that, when present in the proper concentration and forms in the environment, prevents or reduces corrosion. (See also corrosion inhibitor.)


a substance capable of causing a chemical reaction (such as polymerization or curing) to start.

injection grouting

injection port

entry point where grout is introduced into cracks and voids.

in-place condition

see ACI 562 for code specific language.


situated in the original place or position; undisturbed.

in-situ condition

the existing condition of a structure, member, connection, or components including sizes and geometry, material properties, and damage from aging or other events.


the common boundary surface between two materials, e.g., an existing concrete substrate and a bonded repair material.

intergranular corrosion

preferential corrosion at or adjacent to the grain boundaries of a metal or alloy.

intumescent coating

a fire retardant coating which, when heated, produces nonflammable gases that convert the coating to a foam, thereby insulating the substrate.


collecting and assembling data and detailed information regarding a structure’s behavior, condition, and strength, acquired from analyses of documents, surveys, observations and tests, and other means, such as conducting interviews with persons knowledgeable of the structure.


an atom, or group of atoms, that has gained or lost one or more outer electrons and thus carries an electric charge; positive ions, or cations, are deficient in outer electrons; negative ions, or anions, have an excess of outer electrons.

isotropic material

a material that exhibits the same properties in all directions.

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