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Concrete Repair Terminology (E)
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Concrete Repair Terminology is prepared by the International Concrete Repair Institute. The cross-referenced terms provide definitions for commonly used words in concrete repair, restoration and protection.

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Revised April 2019

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a finishing tool used on the edges of fresh concrete to provide a rounded edge. (320.5R-14, ACI Concrete Terminology 2013)

effective area of reinforcement

cross-sectional area of steel reinforcement considered effective as structural reinforcing.

effective area of concrete

cross section area of a concrete member that resists axial, shear, or flexural stresses.


a generally white deposit formed when water-soluble compounds emerge in solution from concrete, masonry, or plaster substrates and precipitate by reaction such as carbonation or crystallize by evaporation.

efflux time

time required for all grout to escape from a flow cone. (See also flow cone.)

elastic modulus


that property of a material that enables it to return to its original size and shape after deformation.


a macromolecular material that at room temperature returns rapidly to approximately its initial dimensions and shape after substantial deformation by a weak stress and removal of the stress; a term often used for rubber and polymers that have properties similar to those of rubber.


having the characteristics of an elastomer.

electrical resistivity

a measure of the resistance of a material to flow of electric current.

electric log

a record or log of a borehole obtained by lowering electrodes into the hole and measuring any of the various electrical properties of the materials traversed.

electrochemical cell

an electrochemical system consisting of an anode and a cathode in electrical contact and immersed in an electrolyte. (The anode and cathode may be different metals or dissimilar areas on the same metal surface).

electrochemical chloride extraction

corrosion passivation by removal of chlorides from concrete as a result of the application of a direct current that causes chlorides to migrate away from the reinforcing steel and out of the concrete.

electrochemical compatibility

electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

diagnostic tool that can be used to determine the dielectric properties of materials; the values may be related to the corrosion rate when the measurement is made at the corrosion potential.

electrochemical potential (electrochemical tension)

the difference in potential (voltage) that exists when two different electrodes are connected through an external conducting circuit and the two electrodes are placed in a conducting electrolyte solution so that electrochemical reactions occur.

electrode potential

the potential of an electrode in an electrolyte as measured against a reference electrode; the electrode potential does not include any resistance losses in potential in either the solution or external circuit; it represents the reversible work to move a unit charge from the electrode surface through the solution to the reference electrode.


production of chemical changes by the passage of current through an electrolyte.


1) a nonmetallic substance that carries an electric current, or a substance which, when dissolved in water, separates into ions which can carry an electric current; 2) an ionically conducting medium in which the flow of charge is accompanied by movement of ions; usually an aqueous solution.

electrolytic cell

a unit apparatus in which electrochemical reactions are produced by applying electrical energy, or that supplies electrical energy as a result of chemical reactions and that includes two or more electrodes and one or more electrolytes contained in a suitable vessel.


electrodepositing a metal or alloy in an adherent form on an object serving as a cathode.


the temperature of a surface at a given ambient temperature and relative humidity, at which condensation of moisture will occur.

elephant trunk

an articulated tube or chute used in concrete placement.


increase in length.


a two-phase liquid system in which one liquid is immiscible in and uniformly dispersed throughout another liquid.

endothermic reaction

a chemical reaction in which heat is absorbed.


Engineer of record

an Engineer that is in responsible charge of the engineering evaluation, design, or other engineering responsibilities of a project.

envelope grouting

epoxy injection

a method for sealing or repairing cracks in concrete by injecting epoxy adhesives.

epoxy mortar

a mixture of epoxy resin, curing agent, and fine aggregate.

epoxy resin


the state in which the action of multiple forces produce a steady balance.

equilibrium reaction

a chemical reaction which proceeds primarily in one direction until the concentrations of reactants and products reach an equilibrium.

equivalent cover

methods such as use of coatings that provide enhanced durability or fire protection equivalent to that provided by concrete cover over steel reinforcement. (See ACI 562 for code specific language.)

equivalent weight

the weight in grams of an element, compound or ion which would react with or replace 1 gram of hydrogen; the molecular weight in grams divided by the valence charge.


progressive disintegration of a solid by the abrasive or cavitation action of gases, fluids, or solids in motion. (See also abrasion damage and cavitation damage.)


a naturally occurring mineral, characterized as a high-sulfate calcium sulphoaluminate, occurring in nature or formed as a cement hydration product or in sulfate attack on mortar or concrete; also the product of the principal expansion-producing reaction in expansive cements.


a class of compounds formed by the reaction of alcohols and organic acids.


the process of assessing the need for maintenance, repair, or rehabilitation of concrete and concrete structures by determining in-situ condition and identifying the cause and extent of distress or deterioration; the process may include field and laboratory testing and engineering calculations. (See also condition assessment, condition survey, and visual inspection.)

evaluation (structural)

the process of determining and judging the adequacy of a building, member, or system for its intended use or performance; engineering analysis may be required to determine the existing structure capacity and demand; the goal of the evaluation process is to appraise the current in-place condition to determine adequacy for current or proposed future serviceability.

evaporable water

see water, evaporable. (See also water, non-evaporable.)


disintegration by scaling or peeling off in thin flakes; corrosion along planes parallel to the surface that forces metal away from the body of the material resulting in a layered appearance.

existing building

(See ACI 562 for code specific language.)


heat released during a chemical reaction.

exothermic reaction

a chemical reaction in which heat is evolved.


increase in either length of volume.

expansion anchors

expansive cement

extended mortar

concrete produced by the addition of coarse aggregate to a mortar product.


a finely divided inert mineral or coarse aggregate added to provide economical bulk in synthetic resins and adhesives or cementitious mortars.


the maximum tensile strain that hardened cement paste, mortar, or concrete can sustain without formation of a continuous crack.

extensometer points

an arrangement of three embedded plugs or surface-mounted discs, two on one side of a crack and the third on the other, which, when used in combination with a mechanical strain gage, provides a technique for monitoring crack width.

external strengthening

explosive blasting

a method for fracturing and removing concrete with rapidly expanding gas confined within a series of bore holes; a cost effective and expedient means for removing large quantities of concrete.


a liquid or viscous gel-like material discharged through a pore, crack, or opening in the surface of concrete.

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