ICRI Concrete Repair Terminology (B)
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Revised June 2015

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- B -

backer rod

a flexible, compressible rod placed in a joint to reduce the depth of sealant and improve its shape factor; it also serves to support the sealant against sagging and indentation.


backup wall

the inner layer of a masonry wall system.


barrier wall

a wall system with two or more wythes of masonry with mortar-filled collar joint to form a solid wall.


base

a substance that releases hydroxyl ions when dissolved in water; bases react with acids to form a neutral salt and water. (See also alkali.)


batch

quantity of material (concrete, mortar, grout, etc.) mixed at one time.


batch method

a quantity of grout materials are mixed or catalyzed at one time prior to injection.


batch mixer

a machine that mixes batches of concrete, mortar, or grout, in contrast to a continuous mixer.


batching

weighing or volumetrically measuring and introducing into the mixer the ingredients for a batch of either concrete or mortar.


bead

a strip of applied sealant, glazing compound, or putty.


bed joint

bed joint—a horizontal mortar joint between a repair material and a substrate.


bentonite

a distinct type of fine-grained clay containing not less than 85% montmorillionite clay.

binders

cementing materials, either hydrated cements or products of cement or lime and reactive siliceous materials or other materials such as polymers that form the matrix of concretes, mortars, and sanded grouts.


Blaine fineness

the fineness of granular materials such as cement and pozzolan, expressed as total surface area in square centimeters per gram, determined by the Blaine air-permeability apparatus and procedure.


blast-furnace slag

the nonmetallic product consisting essentially of silicates and aluminosilicates of calcium and other bases that develops in a molten condition simultaneously with iron in a blast furnace; used both in the manufacture of slag cement and as an aggregate for lightweight concrete.


bleaching

the fading of color toward white generally caused by exposure to chemicals or ultraviolet radiation.


bleeding

1) the flow of mixing water within, or its emergence from newly placed concrete or mortar; 2) the absorption of oil resin or plasticizer from a compound into an adjacent porous surface; 3) the diffusion of color matter through a coating from underlying surfaces causing a color change.


blemish

any superficial defect that causes visible variation from a consistently smooth and uniformly colored surface of hardened concrete. (See also bleaching, bloom, bug holes, efflorescence, honeycomb, laitance, mottled, popout, rock pocket, and sand streak.)


blended cement


blistering

1) the irregular raising of a thin layer at the surface of placed mortar or concrete during or soon after completion of the finishing operation; 2) bulging of the finish plaster coat as it separates and draws away from the base coat; 3) the formation of air or gas pockets trapped within a thin-film coating, elastomeric membrane, or any impervious membrane.


bloom

1) a visible exudate of efflorescence on the surface of a material; 2) a haziness which develops on coated surfaces caused by the exudation of a component of the coating system.


blow pipe

air jet used in shotcrete gunning to remove rebound other loose material from the work area.


blushing

a coating defect which manifests itself as a milky appearance which is generally caused by rapid solvent evaporation or the presence of excessive moisture during the curing process.


board butt joint

shotcrete construction joint formed by sloping gunned surface to a 1-in. (25- mm) board laid flat.


bond

1) adhesion of applied materials to reinforcement or other surfaces against which it is placed, including chemical adhesion as well as mechanical interlock with roughened surfaces, bar deformations, or other geometric irregularities; 2) adhesion or cohesion between layers of a repair area or between a repair material and a substrate produced by adhesive or cohesive properties of the repair material or other supplemental materials throughout the service life of the repair. (See ACI 562 for code specific language.)


bond failure

fracture that results when applied force exceeds adhesion between two bonded surfaces such as a repair material or coating and concrete substrate.


bonded anchors


bond breaker

a material used to prevent adhesion at a designated interface.


bond line

the interface between two surfaces bonded together with an adhesive.


bond strength


bonding agent

a material applied to a suitable substrate to enhance bond between it and a succeeding layer.


boom-mounted breakers


borescope

a device composed of a rigid or flexible tube with mirrors and lenses that is inserted into a small drill hole or other access channel to provide a visual image of internal conditions.


brittle

a tendency to crack or break when subjected to deformation; frangible.


broadcast

to toss or otherwise distribute granular material, such as sand, over a horizontal surface so that a thin, uniform layer is obtained.


broom and seed

a method for application of polymer concrete in which alternate layers of resin and aggregate are built up to form an overlay.


bruised surface

a surface layer weakened by interconnected microcracks in concrete substrates caused by use of high-impact, mechanical methods for concrete removal and surface preparation; fractured layer typically extends to a depth of 1/8 to 3/8 in. (3 to 10 mm) and, if not removed, frequently results in lower bond strengths compared to surfaces prepared with nonimpact methods.


bubbling

a temporary or permanent film defect in which bubbles of air or solvent vapor are present in the applied film.


bug holes

small cavities in the surface of formed concrete caused by entrapment of air bubbles during placement and consolidation; usually no larger than 5/8 in. (15 mm) in diameter.


build

the wet or dry thickness of a coating or film.


build-up

placing material in layers to increase thickness.


bush-hammer

a serrated hammer with rows of pyramidal points used to roughen or dress a surface; to finish a surface with a bush-hammer.


buttonhead

a cold-formed flare at the end of individual wires in post-tensioning tendon that bears against an anchorage assembly; also the term used to describe an early-generation post- tensioning system that utilized cold formed buttons to anchor individual parallel wires in a tendon.


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