Award of Excellence: Longevity Category
Champion International Parking Structure
Submitted by WDP & Associates, Inc.
In 1978, as part of the planning and construction of the Champion International corporate headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut, a cast-in-place post-tensioned concrete parking structure to accommodate approximately 1,000 vehicles was designed. Construction of the eight-story garage began in 1979. The facility opened in 1981.
The garage began showing noticeable signs of deterioration caused principally by chloride-induced corrosion as early as 1990. Based on the engineering evaluation and testing that was conducted, the long-term durability of the post-tensioned deck slabs had clearly been compromised and consequently the expected service life reduced.
The strategy ultimately chosen to rehabilitate the post-tensioned slabs was a multiple layer epoxy overlay. The system is composed of a flexible epoxy broadcast with hard graded sand aggregate constructed in two layers. Used extensively in several states to rehabilitate bridge decks and extensively studied in a Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) project, the system had virtually no application in parking garages. The Champion International parking structure is one of the few large-scale structures which has used a multiple-layer epoxy overlay. The construction began May 15, 1994 and was completed on schedule August 15, 1994.
The Champion International parking structure has been inspected annually for the past six years since the completion of the overlay to determine the condition and the durability of the structure in general, and of the overlay in specific. Using visual and nondestructive testing, the annual inspections have clearly indicated that the multiple-layer epoxy overlay has performed very well, and that the anticipated service life extension will be more than 20 years.